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White Mountain Apache Life and Culture


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Chief Alchesay, Washington DC

This photo was taken after a meeting in Washington DC, for Chief Alchesay to get permission to have cattle on the White Mountain Apache Reservation.

From left to right in front are Chief Alchesay's son Baha, James M. Keys, Chief Alchesay, Grey Oliver (interpreter), Chief Tzizy, and Superintendent Charles Davis.


photo id: 364


Lutheran Church in Whiteriver

The Church of the Open Bible has a rich history. Nestled in the White Mountains on the land of the White Mountain Apache Tribe, the church still exists in the same building dedicated by Chief Alchesay himself in 1922. He marched through the doors and asked that he and his people be baptized. He told everyone to listen to the "tall missionary" when he speaks from God's Book. 



photo id: 400


Apache Girl

An Apache girl working on crops on the White Mountain Apache Reservation around 1920.



photo id: 612


Apache Hoop Game

Apache game with hoop and sticks ca. 1920

photo id: 613


Apache Tribal Law Officer

Apache tribal Law Officer ca. 1920

photo id: 614


Apache Chief

Apache Chief ca. 1920

photo id: 615


Apache Boys

Apache boys ca. 1920

photo id: 616


House of Corydon Cooley

House of Corydon Cooley (nearest man on the porch).  Located a few miles south of present day Hon-Dah, the Cooley Ranch was noted for hospitality to all comers.  It acted as an important stopping point for soldiers and travelers on their way to Fort Apache. 

photo id: 618


Ration Day

Ration Day – ca. 1920.   Native Americans were given rations of basic necessities like corn and beans.  The government purchased the rations from local farmers including the Indians themselves.

photo id: 619


Ration Day

Ration day at the Indian Agency



photo id: 620


Molly

Molly, the Apache wife of Corydon Cooley in 1917. She died in 1920.

photo id: 621


Apache Scouts

Apache Scouts. In the upper left corner is Corydon Cooley. 

photo id: 622


Apache Chief Pedro

Cibecue Apache Chief Pedro was born ca. 1835 and lived until around 1895. He was chief of the Carrizo band until being driven off the Carrizo Creek by Miguel during a clan dispute. Two years later he and his band were allowed by  Eastern White Mountain Apache Chief Esh-kel-dah-sila to settle near Fort Apache.

Chief Pedro was the father of Molly and Cora (wives of Corydon Cooley), and respected tribal leaders Alchesay and Baha Alchesay.


photo id: 623


July 4, 1918

Apaches celebrating July 4th in McNary – ca. 1918

photo id: 624


Party Clothes

Apache women in "party clothes” ca. 1918

photo id: 625


Apache Summer Dwellings

Early Apache summer dwellings were comfortable and practical.  Airy and cool on hot days but with sufficient protection from summer rains.  ca. 1918

photo id: 626


Summer Camp

Apache family enjoying summer camp.  ca. 1918

photo id: 627


Apache Cradleboard

Apache women ca. 1900.  Like so many things in Apache life, the cradleboards were a practical solution to a busy life.  It allowed mothers to keep their hands free for the endless tasks of cooking, gathering fuel and food, and taking care of their close families. 

photo id: 628


Selling Corn

Apache farmers selling corn to the government for two cents per pound at the turn of the century.  Sales provided important cash income and the corn was distributed to soldiers and other Native Americans.

photo id: 629


Shopping Trip

Apache mother and child returning home from a "shopping trip” ca. 1900

photo id: 630


Reservation School

Reservation school for Indian children ca. 1900.  Many Native American children were taken from their families and sent to distant boarding schools where they were forbidden to speak their native language or practice their culture.

photo id: 631


Selling Corn

Apache farmers arriving with a load of corn to sell to the government.  The price was two cents per pound (ca. 1900).  The corn was an important food for the ever-hungry soldiers, Native Americans, and livestock.


photo id: 633


Payday!

Payday!  Apaches earned valuable cash income from assisting the Army with scouting and horse wrangling.  Rare photo ca. 1900

photo id: 634


Apache Mother and Child

Apache mother and child.  ca. 1900

photo id: 636


Lutheran Church

Lutheran church at Whiteriver ca. 1900

photo id: 637


Summer Camp

Apache family in summer camp ca. 1900.  

photo id: 638


Receiving Rations

Apaches ready to receive rations.  ca. 1918

photo id: 639


Ready to Celebrate

Apache girls dressed to go to a celebration.  Ca. 1918

photo id: 640


Girl Gathering Corn

Apache girl gathering the corn harvest around 1918.  With no access to machinery, agriculture was back-breaking work for everybody in the family.

photo id: 641


Apache Girls

Apache girls in finery ca. 1918

photo id: 642


Apache Man

Apache man ca. 1920

photo id: 643


Apaches

Apaches. Photo was taken around 1920.

photo id: 644


Fairgrounds

The annual fair in the 1930s. Photographed by  Wayne T. Pratt. 















Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe 
 


photo id: 886


Rodeo

The annual rodeo in the 1930s. This photograph was taken by  Wayne T. Pratt. 















Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 887


Highway 60

Photo taken by Wayne T. Pratt in the 1930s. 

















Courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe. 


photo id: 892


Trading Post

The interior of the trading post. 















Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 894


Trading Post

A trading post in Whiteriver. Taken by Wayne T. Pratt in the 1930s. 














Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 895


Whiteriver Aerial View

An aerial photograph of Whiteriver in the 1930s, taken by Wayne T. Pratt. 











Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 896

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General Crook's Cabin

Pictured here is General George Crook's cabin in the early 1900s.
 
On May 16, 1870 an army post was established near the present town of Whiteriver in order to assist the White Mountain Apache Tribe to peacefully protect their lands. That same month the post and surrounding area was designated as a reservation for the Apache tribe.

Fort Apache is perhaps most widely recognized in association with the famous renegade leaders from various Apache bands, such as Geronimo and Cochise, who were pursued by the soldiers from Fort Apache and the White Mountain Apache Scouts, including Chief Alchise and Diablo. These men were instrumental in bringing a lasting peace to the Southwest.


photo id: 361


Captain George Crook



Captain George Crook stands with Native American (Chiricahua) Dutchy (Ba-keetz-ogie, the Yellow Coyote) and Al-chi-say, chief of White Mountain Apaches, both with rifles; they are next to a saddled mule with Crook's double barrel rifle.



Western History/Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library




photo id: 1095


Apache Wickiup

Pictured here is Chief Alchesay standing outside a wickiup, the traditional housing for the Apache Indians that allowed them to live their semi-nomadic lifestyle.
 
These structures were primarily used for sleeping because all other activities, such as cooking, were done outside. This wickiup is one from Fort Apache, located on the White Mountain Apache Reservation in Northeastern Arizona.


photo id: 420


Cooley and Soldiers at Fort Apache

Corydon Cooley is pictured to the far right with officers and scouts from Fort Apache circa 1872. Unfortunately no other names or information about the picture are available. You can see the Apache scouts have their cards spanned as if ready to play.

For forty years the Cooley's provided welcomed hospitality for both military and civilian travelers on the road from Holbrook to Fort Apache.

We are indebted to the Cooley's for bridging over many of the misunderstandings between the white people and the Apaches. They also paved the way for many Mormons to settle on the mountain and live peacefully with the Native Americans.


photo id: 180


Cooley Fort Apache

This picture was likely taken prior to the wedding of Chief Pedro's daughters dated 1872.

Corydon Cooley married one of Pedro's daughters and bestowed upon her the American name of Mollie. 
 
As was a frequent practice amongst the Apache, Mollie's sister joined their new household. Some time later Corydon also married this sister. The custom of more than one wife was acceptable with the natives. This new wife was given the name Cora.




photo id: 181


Army Ambulance

The U.S. Army Ambulance, pulled by a six mule team, was the fastest means of travel between Fort Apache and Holbrook.

photo id: 318


Soldiers at Fort Apache

Soldiers at Fort Apache assemble for guard mount, circa 1900.

photo id: 632


Barracks

Row of barracks at Fort Apache, circa 1900. Initially soldiers lived in tents when Fort Apache was established in 1870. They began constructing permanent buildings the following year. 

photo id: 635


Parade Grounds

A soldier on a horse at the 10-acre Fort Apache parade grounds. 











Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 875


Cavalry

Cavalry troops on the Fort Apache parade ground. 











Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 876


Cavalry Practice

The 10th Cavalry, a segregated African American unit, practices a mounted pistol drill at Fort Apache. 









Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 891


Captain's Quarters

A thoroughbred horse stands in front of the Captain’s Quarters on Fort Apache.












Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 877


Pack Trail

A pack string headed south from Fort Apache.




Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 879


Baby Burro

A soldier with a baby burro at Fort Apache. 













Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 880


Monkey Drill

Troop F in Monkey Drill.  Troopers from the 10th Cavalry (Buffalo Soldiers) at Fort Apache performed Roman Riding drills throughout the region.

 
 
 










Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 883


CO Quarters

Fort Apache Commanding Officer’s Quarters.  Constructed in 1892, this 4,000 square foot house was the fourth and final built for the post’s CO. It was later used as the principal's quarters for the Theodore Roosevelt School from 1923 until the 1980s. 










Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 884


Selling Hay

Apache families bringing hay to sell to the Army at Fort Apache, circa 1918.


 
 
 
 







Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 885


Coyote

A trooper with a "pet” coyote a Fort Apache. 



 












Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 872


Fishing

Troopers with Apache Trout after a successful fishing trip. 












Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 873


Adjutant's Office

Fort Apache adjutant’s office, circa 1918.  


 









Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 882


Dolls

Young girls with dolls and beads at the Theodore Roosevelt School at Fort Apache. This was taken in the 1920s by Bessie Kniffen Young. 


The Army abandoned Fort Apache in 1922, and in 1923 the site became the home of the Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Theodore Roosevelt Indian Boarding School. 





Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 866


School Sign

Three girls  with the Theodore Roosevelt School sign in Fort Apache. This was taken in the 1920s by Bessie Kniffen Young. 

The children pictured are Diné, having been brought to the "off-reservation” Theodore Roosevelt School from their homes on the Navajo Nation.  Prior to the 1930s, the children at Theodore Roosevelt were predominantly, if not exclusively, Diné.  Apache children began to attend Theodore Roosevelt in the 1930s. 







 Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe. 


photo id: 864


Cabin

The original caption below this photo taken at the Theodore Roosevelt School  reads: 

"This shows the teachers of Home Economics in the background and a couple little children came along and wanted to be in the picture and also shows all of the log cabin where the teacher on the right Ms. Kastenhuber lived." 



















Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 865


Uniformed Boys

Boys in uniform at the Theodore Roosevelt School in the 1920s. Fort Apache military culture lingered even after soldiers left; student drill teams marched on the parade ground after suppers. 









Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 867


Line by Dorms

Girls lined up in front of their dormitory at the Theodore Roosevelt School at Fort Apache. 

The school was originally intended to serve Diné (Navajo) children, by the 1930s a majority of students at the school were Apache.






Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 868


Cabin Road

Four girls standing on the road in front of the cabins at Theodore Roosevelt School in the 1920s. Initial enrollment when the school opened in 1923 was 250 Navajo and Hopi students. The students were in five grades and taught by five teachers. 









Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 869


Headquarters

Anglo men and women on the porch at the Theodore Roosevelt School headquarters building. This photo was taken in the 1920s by Bessie Kniffen, a young teacher with a Christian missionary inclination. 

Today Theodore Roosevelt School serves as a middle school under the administration of a school board selected by the Tribal Council.  






Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 870


Boys' Dormitory

The boys' dormitory at Theodore Roosevelt Boarding School at Fort Apache was built in 1932. It is 23,000 square feet with two stories and a full basement. This photograph was taken by Wayne T. Pratt.










Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 888


Chores

Young boys doing chores at the Theodore Roosevelt School. The school was mostly self-supportingl. Students were expected to help maintain the school by helping staff with day-to-day operations. This photograph was taken by Wayne T. Pratt. 






















Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 889


Outdoor Lecture

Instruction given by school farmer at the Theodore Roosevelt School in the 1930s.  















Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe



photo id: 893


Trachoma

Wayne T. Pratt, the photographer, reports that Theodore Roosevelt School was to be closed as a boarding school following the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, but instead was converted to a trachoma treatment school. That role was to be completed in the 1938-39 school year, after which Theodore Roosevelt transitioned back to a vocational school for Apache students.

During the period from 1934-1939 Theodore Roosevelt School was one of the few places where Indian children suffering from severe Trachoma could continue to go to school. Pupils were given treatment every morning six days a week. Treatment meant anesthetizing the eyelid with cocaine and then scraping the inflamed granulations off the eyelids and lining of the eye. Treatment was often prolonged, with multiple scrapings being performed. 


Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 890


Captain's Quarters

A recent photograph of the Captain's Quarters at Fort Apache. There are two identical Captain's Quarters buildings, made of sandstone. They were built in 1892 and are 3,630 square feet. Fort Apache is now a National Historic Landmark.












Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe



photo id: 957


Commanding Officer's Quarters

A recent photograph of the Commanding Officer's quarters, which was built in 1892. It was also the Theodore Roosevelt School principle's home from 1923 until the 1980s. 















Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe



photo id: 958


Guardhouse

A recent photograph of one of the Fort Apache guardhouses. 
















Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe



photo id: 959


Girls Dormitory

A recent photograph of the Girl's Dormitory at the Theodore Roosevelt School. It was built in 1931 to replace the old dormitory which burned down the previous year. It was used as the girl's dormitory until 1990, and has been a co-ed dorm since 1999. 











Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe



photo id: 960


Stable

A recent picture of the stables, which were built in 1904 to replace the one that burned down the previous year. It was later used as a dairy barn, and is now used for storage. 












Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe



photo id: 961


Quartermaster's Store

A recent photo of the Quartermaster's Storehouse, completed in 1889. It's been used for Army and Bureau of Indian Affairs equipment and supply storage and distribution ever since. 










Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 962


Granary

A recent photograph of the Granary, which was built in 1904. The Army used it for feed storage until 1922, and it has been used for equipment and supply storage ever since. 















Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe



photo id: 963


Magazine

A recent photograph of the 1886 magazine. It was built for ammunition and explosive storage. 














Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 964


Adjutant's Office

A recent photograph of the Adjutant's Office, built in 1876. It was used as an administration center until 1920, and then became a post office. 













Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 965


Log Cabin

A recent photograph if the Fort Apache Log Cabin. Built in 1871, this building was used early on as the Commanding Officer's Quarters. Later the Theodore Roosevelt School used it for Home Economics. Currently the building is used for museum exhibits. 


 
 
 
 








Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 966


Officer's Row

A recent photograph of the row of Officer's housing at Fort Apache. There are 12 buildings along Officer's Row, built between 1872 and 1982. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe


photo id: 967

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Basket



   

 

 
 


Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe 


photo id: 949


Large Basket




  







  






   




Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe 


photo id: 950


Flower Design






















Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe 


photo id: 951


Inside























Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe 


photo id: 952


Pinwheel Design





















Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe 


photo id: 953


Doll

A doll believed to have been made by Cornelia Skidmore. 


 




Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe 


photo id: 954


Exhibit Basket


























Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe 


photo id: 955


Marilyn's Basket

A basket made by White Mountain Apache weaver Marilyn Hume in 2004 using an old style of decoration with red fabric underlying the buckskin "dressing." 

Photo provided by the Taylor/Shumway Heritage Foundation in Taylor, Arizona. 












Photo courtesy of Nohwike' Bágowa Museum, White Mountain Apache Tribe 


photo id: 956


Container Collection

Nine containers: baskets, bowls, and jars.

Photograph taken by Edward Curtis, circa 1907. 
 
 
 
 
 


photo id: 1087


Apache woman, Irene selecting beads for her work

White Mountain Apache woman, known as Irene creating beaded works. 1940






Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library

Call Number NAU.PH.3.5.6.9

Item number 51273

Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu 



photo id: 1189


White Mountain Apache woman Irene with beads

Irene with beads, a work in progress and finished beadwork. Whiteriver, Arizona, 1940





Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library

Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.5.13

Item number 51334

Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu 



photo id: 1190


Apache woman, Irene, doing beadwork at Whiteriver, Arizona, 1940

White Mountain Apache woman Irene doing beadwork. Note the intricacy of the design.



Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library

Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.6.8

Item number 51272

Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu 




photo id: 1191


Sample of finished beadwork

Bead work in progress as well as finished bead work both with colorful designs.







Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library

Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.6.15

Item number 51337

Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu 




photo id: 1193


Elderly woman gathering pitch for baskets


Elderly Apache woman with knife and bucket gathering pitch 1941








Northern Arizona University, Cline Library Colorado Plateau Archives NAU.PH.99.3.5.8.3



photo id: 1104


Flora Erskine, Basket Weaver

Apache basket weaver, Flora Erskine, Whiteriver, AZ 1941









Credit: Northern Arizona University. Cline Library (Tad Nichols Manuscript Collection) NAU.PH. 99.3.5.7.4    





photo id: 1091


Flora Erskine

Apache basket weaver, 1941. Flora Erskine, weaver










Credit: Northern Arizona University, Cline Library Colorado Plateau Archives NAU.PH.99.3.5.7.5



photo id: 1106

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Apache Braves ready for trail near Camp Apache, Arizona.

Apache men pose outdoors with rifles near a brush shelter in Arizona. They wear boot moccasins and breechcloths., a wickiup is in the background. 1873 stereograph.







Western History/Genealogy Department,
Denver Public Library
Reproduction Number
X-33875




 


photo id: 1188


White Mountain Apache group

Studio portrait (sitting and standing) of White Mountain Apachewomen and a man. The women wear dresses and bead necklaces. One woman wears a medal pendant, the other holds a basket. The man wears a blanket and a feather roach. The roach is a sign of a medicine man. There are bundles of owl feathers and with buttons around the lower edge, similar to keep two eagle feathers upright but but leaving them free to move in the breeze.




Title: White Mountain Apache group

Keywords: White Mountain Apache, clothing and headdress

Western History/Genealogy Department,

Denver Public Library,

Reproduction number W-32859




photo id: 1194


An Apache man drinks from Navajo Creek in Arizona. His rifle and horse are nearby








 

Courtesy Western History/Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library

Reproduction number X-33146



photo id: 1187


Wickiup

 Rounded structure made out of grass, with baskets in front. 

Photograph taken by Edward Curtis, circa 1903. 


photo id: 1086


Storytelling

Storytelling was a popular activity among the Apaches. Here a group of Apache men, two on horseback, others seated, listening and looking on as one member of the party is marking the ground with a stick.


Photograph taken by Edward Curtis, circa 1906.


photo id: 1088


Ndee Sangochonh


Photograph taken by Edward Curtis, circa 1906. 


photo id: 1089


Dosey, a White Mountain Apache woman

Studio portrait of Dosey, a White Mountain Apache woman. She holds a woven basket and wears a beaded and fringed shawl and bead necklaces. Apaches were known for their intricate basket weaving.




Western History/Genealogy Department,

Denver Public Library

Call number X-32877



photo id: 1175


Daisy, White Mountain Apache

Standing studio portrait of Daisy, a White Mountain Apache woman wearing a fringed buckskin shirt or top with a calico full skirt and posed with baskets and blankets. Cloth dresses or skirts were common by 1850. This portrait was taken about 1883-1885. 




Courtesy of Western History/Genealogy Dept.

Denver Public Library

X-32938



photo id: 1176


Apache Esh-kin-tsay-giza (Mike) White Mountain Indians Al-chi-say's band

Studio portrait of Mike (Eshkintsaygiza), a White Mountain Apache Alchisay’s band man. He holds a rifle and wears boot moccasins, a breechcloth, ammunition belt, head bandolier, scarves around his neck, face paint, and a cloth headband. Photo taken between 1890 and 1920.



Courtesy of Western History/Genealogy Dept.,

Denver Public Library

Call number X-32879



photo id: 1177


Title: Tzoch or Peaches, General Crooks White Mountain Apache Scout

Standing studio portrait of Peaches (Penaltish or Tzoch), a  White Mountain Apache scout, wearing a fringe shirt, trousers, moccasins, a wrapped headband, ammunition belt with holstered handgun and rifle in hand.

Title hand-lettered on original, partially illegible; hand-written: "This is the renegade guide in Genl Crooks Campaign into the Sierra Madres, 83, (Peaches or Tzoch, White Mountain Apache) very light skin, full blooded, Lt Chaffee dubbed Peaches because such rosy cheeks, (?) by Crook loyal & trusty," and photographer's stamp on back of mat board.



Western History/Genealogy department,

Denver Public Library

Call Number x-32930



photo id: 1178


General Crook Campaign Photo

Captain General Crook stands with (Chiricahua) Dutchy (Ba-keetz-ogie, the Yellow Coyote on left and Al-chi-say, chief of the White Mountain Apaches, on right with rifles and Crook’s double barrel rifle.


Courtesy of

Western History/Genealogy Department,

Denver Public Library

Reproduction Number X-32954



photo id: 1179


Camp Apache Arizona

Apache men and a white man pose near Fort Apache, Arizona. A saddled horse stands nearby. 1883






Western History/Genealogy Department,

Denver Public Library

Call Number X33462



photo id: 1180


Indian Scouts 1880-1890

Studio portrait of White Mountain Apache  scout, Peaches (Penaltish or Tzoch) and San Carlos scouts who served the U.S. military in the 1883 Apache Campaign to capture the Chiricahua band. (Date 1885?)




Courtesy of Western History/Genealogy Dept.,

Denver Public Library




photo id: 1181


Nalte & brother, Gud-i-z-ah, White Mountain Apache Scouts for General Crook's army

Studio portrait of two of the White Mountain Apaches who served as scouts for General Crook’s army, Nalte and brother Gud-i-z-ah. One holds a rifle and wears a concho buckskin war shirt and a war amulet strap in his hair, the other has a medicine cord for war protection diagonally across his chest. Both wear leggings, moccasins and headbands. Note the turned up toes of the moccasins; The turned up toe prevents injuring the foot. 1883



Courtesy of Western History/ Genealogy Department,

Denver Public Library Call number X-32924.



photo id: 1182


White Mountain Apache Medicine Man

Standing studio portrait of Nabuash-i-ta, White Mountain Apache medicine man wearing a cape and feathered medicine hat to protect him from bullets and arrows. The cap was made of turkey feathers tightly woven and  with two eagle feathers attached. Normally used for social dances and occasionally for war parties.



Courtesy of Western History/Genealogy Dept.,

Denver Public Library

Call Number X32944



photo id: 1184


Na-buash-i-ta, Apache medicine man of White Mountain Apache

Seated studio portrait of Na-buash-i-ta,  White Mountain Apache medicine man wearing a cap and animal fur medicine hat with two feathers, 1884?





Courtesy of Western History/Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library
Reproduction number X-32921


photo id: 1186

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Apache girl dressed for ceremony

Young Apache girl dressed for Changing Woman Ceremony. The abalone shell tied to her forehead symbolizes the personification of the Changing Woman and will pick up the suns rays at sunrise. She is wearing the puberty t necklace and carries a cane with an eagle feather, an owl wing feather, bells and ribbons.





Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library

Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.5.63

Item number 52143

Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu 



photo id: 1154


Changing Woman ceremony, girl with godmother

One young Apache woman wearing ceremonial dress and holding the ritual wooden cane which symbolizes long life. She carries a scratching stick and a water tube so as not to come into contact with her body. She wears a t-necklace. She stands with her Godmother, her chosen attendant throughout the ceremony.





Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library

Colorado Plateau Collection

Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.5.21

Item number 51159



photo id: 1155


Receiving Blessing of Pollen


A young Apache woman receives a blessing though a dusting of pollen at her Changing Woman ceremony. Pollen is considered a spiritual force. 




Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library
Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.5.31
Item Number 51171
Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu



photo id: 1156


Ceremonial eagle feathers worn by girls at Changing Woman ceremony

The eagle feathers worn by the girls were to guide them at Na’I’es and hang over them even after they were removed. Note the feathers on the shoulders of the girls which were meant to carry the girls lightly and easily through the strenuous dancing of the four day ceremony. 






Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library
Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.5.22
Item Number 51161
Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu 





photo id: 1157


Solemn young Apache woman during Changing Woman Ceremony

Young Apache woman standing with Godmother. The girl must keep a solemn look on her face at all times during the four day ceremony as befits the occasion and her position.



Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library

Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.5.75

Item Number 51193

Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu



photo id: 1158


Ceremonial Tipi pole dwelling

As the girls slept a four pole tipi was constructed for them on the dance ground according to ceremony. The wood had to be carefully chosen and if broken had to be replaced as well as any other ritual articles.








Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library

Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.5.14

Item number 51153

Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu 




photo id: 1159


Everyone gathers around the ceremonial tipi in the Changing Woman Ceremony

During the ceremony, everyone gathers around the tipi to support the Changing Woman celebrant. As this is a four day ceremony, she is often left exhausted.






Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library 
Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.5.18
Item Number 51157
Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu





photo id: 1160


Apache girls with singers and helpers

Participants are led into a dance lasting four hours. They are now accompanied by a partner, usually a woman who has already done the Changing Woman ceremony and who will walk with them through the dance as a support. The women are led by the singers using drums.







Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library
Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.5.38
Item Number 51178
Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu


photo id: 1162


Apache women with singers during Changing Woman Ceremony

Young Apache women accompanied by singers. The changing woman ceremony is four days long, based on the time it took the beginning Changing Woman change from childhood to puberty. The singers pace the songs carefully, watching the girls for signs of exhaustion





Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library

Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.5.23

Item Number 51163

Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu



photo id: 1163


Changing Woman ceremonial objects

Changing Woman Ceremony. Eight blankets covered with deerskin are pointed towards the east. Baskets containing fruit and candy are lined up towards the East as well. A carved stick representing long life is stuck into the earth at the end of the blankets and various ceremonial items are left on the blanket. The girl is lying face down on the blanket. This may be the start of the ceremony or during the massage when the girl’s godmother massages the child prior to the next segment.



Repository Northern Arizona University cline Library

Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.5.26

Item 51166

Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu



photo id: 1164


Changing Women participants accompanied by singers

Young Apache women accompanied by singers. The changing woman ceremony is four days long, based on the time it took the beginning Changing Woman change from childhood to puberty. The singers pace the songs carefully, watching the girls for signs of exhaustion.






Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library

Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.5.23

Item Number 51163

Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu



photo id: 1165


Social dance after ceremonies

Changing Woman ceremonies can often have 100-200 people in attendance. After Changing women ceremonies a big dance is often held.

 




Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library

Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.5.82

Item Number 51153

Photo from http://archive.library.nau.edu



photo id: 1167


Pollen Gathering

Apache woman collecting pollen near McNary 1941.




Repository Northern Arizona University Cline Library

Call Number NAU.PH.99.3.5.9.1

Item number 51452




photo id: 1168
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